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1. Introduction

Nanotechnology deals with the physiochemical, optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of materials whose size and shape are engineered at the nanoscale. Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical, and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts.

NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification.

Nano structures refer to materials or objects that have dimensions in the nanometer scale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanoscale materials and structures exhibit unique properties that are different from those of their bulk counterparts due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, quantum size effects, and the confinement of electrons in small dimensions.

Nano structures can be made from various materials such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. They can be prepared using various techniques such as top-down (for example, etching and lithography) and bottom-up (for example, self-assembly and chemical synthesis) approaches.

Nano structures have a wide range of applications, including in electronics, energy, biomedical, and environmental fields. For example, they can be used to improve the performance of batteries, create more efficient solar cells, or develop new drug delivery systems.

It's worth noting that while nano structures have the potential to bring significant benefits, they also pose potential health and environmental risks due to their small size and large surface area, which can make them more reactive and easier to penetrate biological membranes. Therefore, it's important to carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of nano structures in their design, synthesis, and use.